MINIX — The most popular OS in the world, way to Intel

You might not comprehend it, but inner your Intel gadget, you have an operating machine strolling further on your main OS, MINIX. And it’s raising eyebrows and worries.

Take a examine your desktop computer. What operating gadget is it currently running?

Now take a glance at your data center — at all of your servers. What working gadget are they strolling?MINIX

Linux? Microsoft Windows? Mac OS X? You may be walking any of those 3 — or one of the limitless others.

But right here’s the crazy element: That’s no longer the handiest working system you’re running.

If you have a present-day Intel CPU (launched inside the last few years) with Intel’s Management Engine built in, you’ve were given another entire working system jogging that you won’t have had any clue changed into in there: MINIX OS.

That’s right. MINIX. The Unix-like OS, in the beginning, advanced through Andrew Tanenbaum as an academic device — to demonstrate operating machine programming — is built into every new Intel CPU.

MINIX OS is running on “Ring -three” (that’s “poor three”) on its personal CPU. A CPU which you, the person/owner of the gadget, have no get admission to. The lowest “Ring” you have got any actual get entry to is “Ring zero,” that is in which the kernel of your OS (the one which you certainly selected to use, along with Linux) is living. Most user packages take the region in “Ring three” (without the poor).

The first component that jumps out at me here: This approach MINIX (particularly a version of MINIX 3) is likely the most famous OS delivery today on present-day Intel computers (desktops, laptops, and servers). That, right there, is clearly crazy.

The 2nd aspect to make my head explode: You have zero get admission to “Ring -3” / MINIX. But MINIX has general and whole access to the whole lot of your computer. All of it. It knows all and sees all, which provides a large security danger — specifically if MINIX  NGC-1, on that incredible-mystery Ring -three CPU, is going for walks many services and isn’t updated often with security patches.

Google wants to remove MINIX from its internal servers

According to Google, that is actively running to do away with Intel’s Management Engine (MINIX) from their inner servers (for obvious safety motives), the following functions exist within Ring -three:

Full networking stack
File structures
Many drivers (which includes USB, networking, etc.)
A web server
That’s right. A net server. Your CPU has a mystery net server that you are not allowed to get entry to, and, apparently, Intel does now not need you to understand about.

Why on this inexperienced Earth is there an internet server in a hidden part of my CPU? WHY?Intel

The simplest reason I can consider is if the makers of the CPU wanted a manner to serve up content material through the net without you knowing approximately it. Combine that with the fact that Ring -3 has a hundred percentage access to the entirety on the pc, and that need to make you only a teensy bit fearful.

The security dangers here are off the charts — for home customers and firms. The privacy implications are top notch and overwhelming.

Note to Intel: If Google doesn’t believe your CPUs on their personal servers, perhaps you must recollect eliminating this “characteristic.” Otherwise, sooner or later they’ll (possibly) move far from your CPUs completely.

Note to AMD: Now is probably an excellent time to dispose of comparable functionality out of your CPU strains to attempt to win market percentage from Intel. Better to accomplish that now before Intel removes the “Management Engine.” Strike while the iron’s warm and all that.

Note to Andrew Tanenbaum: Your operating gadget, MINIX, is now one of the most used on modern computers! That’s kinda cool, right?

MINIX: Intel’s hidden in-chip running machine

Buried deep interior your laptop’s Intel chip is the MINIX operating device and a software program stack, which includes networking and an internet server. It’s gradual, difficult to get at, and insecure as insecure may be.

Maybe you’re not paranoid. Maybe they’re out to get you. Ronald Minnich, a Google software engineer, who found a hidden MINIX working device internal “sort of a billion machines” the usage of Intel processors, might accept as true with this.

Why? Let’s start with what. Matthew Garrett, the famous Linux and protection developer who works for Google, explained later that, “Intel chipsets for some years have protected a Management Engine [ME], a small microprocessor that runs independently of the main CPU and operating system. Various portions of software program run in the ME, starting from code to handle media DRM to an implementation of a TPM. AMT [Active Management Technology] is some other piece of software program going for walks at the ME.”

In May, we discovered out that AMT had a primary security flaw, which has been in there for 9 — matter ’em — 9 years.

“Fixing this calls for a device firmware replace for you to offer new ME firmware (along with an up to date replica of the AMT code),” Garrett wrote. “Many of the affected machines are now not receiving firmware updates from their manufacturers, and so will probably by no means get a repair,” he said. “Anyone who ever enables AMT on the sort of devices could be inclined.”

Quick! How lots of you patched your PC or server’s chip firmware? Right. Darn, few of you. That’s horrific. It’s no longer every processor, but if you or your hardware supplier has “explicitly enabled AMT”, your system remains at risk of attack.

The Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) has called for Intel to offer a manner for customers to disable ME. Russian researchers have observed a manner to disable ME after the hardware has initialized, and the principal processor has begun. That doesn’t truly assist a whole lot. I is already going for walks with the aid of then.

But Minnich located that what is occurring within the chip is even more troubling. At a presentation at Embedded Linux Conference Europe, he pronounced that systems the use of Intel chips that have AMT are going for walks MINIX.

If you discovered approximately running structures inside the past due to ’80s and early ’90s, you knew MINIX as Andrew S Tanenbaum’s academic Unix-like running machine. It changed into used to educate running device ideas. Today, it is great referred to as the OS that inspired Linus Torvalds to create Linux.

So, what’s it doing in Intel chips? A lot. These processors are strolling a closed-supply variation of the open-source MINIX 3. We do not know precisely what model or how it’s been modified for the reason that we do not have the source code. We do understand that with it there:

Neither Linux nor another running system has final manipulate of the x86 platform
Between the running system and the hardware are at the least 2 ½ OS kernels (MINIX and UEFI)
These are proprietary and (perhaps not surprisingly) take advantage of friendly
And the exploits can persist, i.E. Be written to FLASH, and also you can not repair that
In addition, thanks to Minnich and his fellow researchers’ work, MINIX is going for walks on 3 separate x86 cores on modern-day chips. There, it’s walking:

TCP/IP networking stacks (4 and six)
File systems
Drivers (disk, net, USB, mouse)
Web servers
MINIX additionally has access to your passwords. It also can reimage your PC’s firmware although it’s powered off. Let me repeat that. If your computer is “off” but nonetheless plugged in, MINIX can nevertheless potentially alternate your computer’s essential settings.

And, for even greater a laugh, it “can put in force self-modifying code which could persist throughout energy cycles”. So, if an exploit takes place right here, even in case you unplug your server in a single final determined try to store it, the attack will nevertheless be there looking forward to you when you plug it back in.

How? MINIX can do all this as it runs at an essentially lower stage.

X86-based total computer systems run their software program at specific privilege levels or “jewelry”. Your packages run at ring 3, and they have the least get admission to the hardware. The decrease the range your program runs at, the more get right of entry to they have to the hardware. Rings two and one do not tend to be used. Operating structures run on ring 0. Bare-metallic hypervisors, including Xen, run on ring -1. Unified Extensible Firmware Interface (UEFI) runs on ring -2. MINIX? It runs on a ring -three.

You can’t see it. You cannot manage it. It’s simply buzzing away there, going for walks your computer. The result, in keeping with Minnich, is “there are big large holes that human beings can force exploits through.” He persisted, “Are you scared yet? If you are no longer scared yet, maybe I didn’t provide an explanation for it very well, because I sure am scared.”OS

What’s the solution? Well, it is not “Switch to AMD chips”. Once, AMD chips did not have this kind of mystery code hidden interior it, however even the trendy Ryzen processors are not totally open. They encompass the AMD platform security system and that is additionally a mysterious black container.

What Minnich would really like to look manifest is for Intel to sell off its MINIX code and use an open-source Linux-primarily based firmware. This would be much greater at ease. The modern-day software is simplest secured by means of “security by using obscurity”.

Changing to Linux might also enable servers to boot a lot quicker. According to Minnich, booting an Open Compute Project (OCP) Server takes eight mins way to MINIX’s primitive drivers. With Linux, it’d take much less than 17 seconds to get to a shell prompt. That’s a speedup of 32 instances.

There’s no cause any longer to make this development. Minnich mentioned, “There are probably 30 million-plus Chromebooks out there and whilst your Chromebook gets a new BIOS, a brand new Linux photo is flashed to firmware and I haven’t heard of any issues.”

Specifically, Minnich proposes that Intel and AMD for that remember:

Make firmware much less able to doing damage
Make its actions greater seen
Remove as many runtime components as viable
In unique, remove its net server and IP stack
Remove the UEFI IP stack and other drivers
Remove ME/UEFI self-reflash capability
Let Linux manage flash updates
Over this, the new Linux firmware might have a userspace written in Go. Users could work with this Linux shell the use of acquainted instructions. This might give them a clear view of what was taking place with the CPU and other machine components.

At the same time, because UEFI is so clean to hack, he wants the “UEFI ROM decreased to its maximum simple elements”.

Will this work? It’s nonetheless early days, Minnich warned, and you may flip “your pc right into a brick”. But both for safety and performance, it desires to do.

It’s neat that a difficult to understand Unix like MINIX, thanks to Intel setting it on more than one cores in its chips, can be the sector’s most broadly used operating device. But it is no manner to run cutting-edge servers and PCs.

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